Describe the pathophysiologic progression of the infection into pneumonia.
I NEED A POSITIVE COMMENT BASED IN THIS ARGUMENT.BETWEEN 120-150 WORDSExplain what is MucorThere is a general class of fungi that is called Zygomycetes or better known as Mucormycosis.This type of fungi is rare and grows in dirt and decomposing leaves or compost. This type of fungi is easily identified due to their unique morphological appearance (Medicine Net 2015a). According to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention Mucormycosis is a very serious condition that affects those individuals that have a very weak immune system (Centers of Disease and Control and Prevention 2014c).How is a patient likely to become infected with Mucor?According to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, there are two specific types ofinfection that can be caused by Mucor. The route of exposure can be through the Lungs orsinus when spores are inhaled from the environment. The spores can cause infection tothe lungs sinuses eyes and face and there are also rare times where the infection can attackthe central nervous system. Infection can also occur through the skin. The organism enters a persons body if the integrity of the skin was compromised by a cut scrape wound puncture or other skin trauma (Centers of Disease Control and Prevention 2014b).Describe the pathophysiologic progression of the infection into pneumonia.The progression of mucormycosis infection into pneumonia is associated with a high mortalityand morbidity rate. The CDC claims that pulmonary mucormycosis happens to people thatsuffer from cancers of the blood steroid use or abnormally low or few neutrophils in theblood which leads to a high susceptibility to infection (Centers of Disease Control andPrevention 2014a). These patients suffer from fever cough shortness of breath and chestpain. As the disease progresses there will be Angioinvasion that will lead to death of the tissuethat will end up in empty spaces and coughing of blood (Centers of Disease Control andPrevention 2014a).Use two medical/nursing interventions that would be helpful in treating the patient.Intervention: Keep patient isolated (Doenges 2016).Rationale: Provides safety to patient by not introducing other pathogens to a very vulnerableimmune system (Doenges 2016).Intervention: Rotate patients position every 2 hrs (Doenges 2016).Rationale: Helps facilitate secretion movement and drainage and decreases atelectasis (Doenges 2016).What laboratory values are considered abnormal?The following information is based on the patients labs:Na normal K NormalCl normal HCO3 – > 25 which is alkalosisBUN normalCr normalCa normal but on the low sideMg normal but on the low sidePO4 Normal but on the low sideGlucose fasting is above (if glucose fasting is > 125 in two separate tests the patient then the diagnosisof diabetes is made)Hb depends if its male female newborn or infant but if the subject is male or female adult the rangeis normal on the low sideHct normal but on the low sideWBC is elevated indicating infectionLymphocytes are low and it can indicate steroid use infections blood cancers infectious diseases.Having a low count of lymphocytes compromises the body from fighting infection (MD Health 2014).pH is high and indicates alkalosisPaO2 is extremely lowPaCO2 is also extremely low. Based on the acid-base imbalances the patient is having respiratoryalkalosis (hyperventilation may be related to: initial stage of pulmonary embolus).Discuss the probable causes from a pathophysiologic perspective.Based on the labs ABGs x-ray and the source of infection the patient is suffering frompulmonary mucormysis. According to Hindawi Publishing Corporation this type of infection hasthe tendency to invade the nearby organs such as the pericardium chest wall andmediastinum. The invasion of the large mediastinal vessels will lead to hemoptysis and lead tomortality (Hindawi Publishing Corporation 2012). This disease is very hard to diagnose due tothe rarity of the disease. Chest x-rays sometimes show pulmonary mucormycosis may presentwith focal consolidation lung masses pleural effusions or multiple nodules. A tissue biopsy is recommended for diagnosis. The histopathological findings reveal irregular broad no septate hyphae and spores (Hindawi Publishing Corporation 2012).What medications are used to treat mucormycosisBased on the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention the following antifungal medicationsshould be used to treat pulmonary mucormycosis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2015b).Amphotericin B this medication is used to treat serious fungal infections. The medicationworks by destroying the fungus and not allowing the reproduction of the fungus (drugs.com 2016). Posaconazole and isavuconazole are also medications that the CDC recommends toattack this problem.According to Hindawai Publishing Corporation Effective management requires a 3-prongedcombination of medical and surgical modalities along with correction of the predisposingunderlying condition(s). Amphotericin B or its newer lipid formulationliposomalAmphotericinB (L-AmB) along with extensive surgical debridement to remove the necroticTissue. Thus it is important that clinicians maintain a high degree of suspicion for pulmonary mucormycosis in case of immunocompromised patients with no resolving pneumonia. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment might reduce the mortality associated with this devastating fungal infection (Hindawi Publishing Corporation 2012). Patients with diabetes must have their glucose supervised closely. Patients might also undergo surgical procedures to removethe fungi from the body extended antifungal medications and consultation with the physiciansthat specialize in infectious diseases (Medicine Net 2015b)ReferencesCenters of Disease Control and Prevention. (2014a). Clinical features of mucormycosis.Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/mucormycosis/symptoms/clinicalfeatures.Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. (2015a). Mucormycosis. Retrieved fromhttp://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/mucormycosis/index.htmlCenters of Disease Control and Prevention. (2014b). Sources of mycormycosis. Retrieved fromhttp://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/mucormycosis/causes.htmlCenters of Disease Control and Prevention. (2014c). Symptoms of mucormycosis. Retrievedfrom http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/mucormycosis/symptoms/Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. (2015b). Treatment for mucormycosis. Retrievedfrom http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/mucormycosis/treatment.htmlDoenges Marilynn E. et al.Nurses pocket guide: diagnoses prioritized interventions and rationales. Philadelphia F.A. Davis Company 2016.Drugs.com. (2016). Amphotericin b. Retrieved fromhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/amphotericin