Unintended Consequences of Health Care ReformThe PPACA of 2010 fostered new provisions for health care and the structure of health care delivery. The individual mandate to obtain insurance is one provocative provision. While this provision attempts to increase access to health care, it raises questions on how the existing system could sustain the potentially large influx of newly insured individuals.Another provision calls for new models of health care provider organizations to ensure delivery efficiency and continuity of care. In this week’s media presentation, Dr. Kathleen White discusses the accountable care organization, which comprises a group of providers coordinating care across a variety of institutional settings. Yet becoming an accountable care organization may present a number of challenges.This week’s Discussion builds on Week 1, continuing the examination of those societal and organizational contexts that influence health care reform. The unintended consequences of reform policy on the health care system are also considered.To prepare:Review this week’s media presentation and the other Learning Resources focusing on how reform may lead to improved quality, greater access, and reduced cost of care. Also think about the unintended consequences that may arise as a result.Consider the information presented about the individual mandate and accountable care organizations. What are some questions or concerns you might have regarding the individual mandate? What are the pros and cons associated with becoming an accountable care organization?With posting instructions in mind, select either the individual mandate or accountable care organizations as the focus of your Discussion this week.By tomorrow Wednesday 03/07/18 BY 12pm, write a minimum of 550 words in APA format with a minimum ofTHREEscholarly references from the list of required readings below. Include the level one headers as numbered below:Post a cohesive response that addresses the following:1) In the first line of your posting, identify the topic you have selected—either the individual mandate or accountable care organizations. With regard to this topic, describe one or more positive results that could be achieved, and one or more unintended consequence(s) that organizations or individuals may experience.2) Briefly evaluate issues on the topic that may be a consideration for the organization you work in and the nursing profession ( I WORK I A HOSPITAL SETTING).Required ReadingsBodenheimer, T., & Grumbach, K. (2016). Understanding health policy: A clinical approach (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.Chapter 5, “How Health Care is Organized – I: Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Care”Chapter 6, “How Health Care is Organized – II: Health Delivery Systems”McClellan, M. (2010). Accountable care organizations in the era of health care reform. American Health & Drug Benefits, 3(4), 242–244.The PPACA of 2010 encourages the formation of accountable care organizations (ACOs) to improve the quality and efficiency of health care delivery. An ACO is a group of health care providers who coordinate care for their Medicare patients and share the financial incentives of health care improvement gains.Moore, K. D., & Coddington, D. C. (2010). Accountable care: The journey begins. Health Care Financial Management, 64(8), 57–63.This article provides information on the importance of health care provider organizations taking steps to become accountable care organizations (ACOs) and provides examples of systems that have historically functioned in this capacity. The authors also provide steps for developing and transitioning to an ACO structure.Institute of Medicine. (2010). The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health. Retrieved from http://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/Reports/2010/The-Future-of-Nursing-Leading-Change-Advancing-Health.aspxThis report discusses how nurses can and should play a fundamental role in meeting the challenges of increased demand for health care brought about by the implementation of the 2010 Affordable Care Act. In addition, it stresses the need for nurses to be partners with other health professionals and assume leadership roles in redesigning health care in the United States.Institute of Medicine. (2010). Report brief: The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health. Retrieved from http://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2010/The-Future-of-Nursing/Future%20of%20Nursing%202010%20Recommendations.pdfThis report brief highlights the four key recommendations from the Robert Wood Johnson and Institute of Medicine the Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health report. The recommendations focus on nursing practice, education and training, partnerships with other healthcare professionals, and workforce planning and policymaking.HealthCare.gov. (n.d.). Understanding the Affordable Care Act. Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/healthcare/rights/index.htmlThis website introduces the Affordable Care Act and presents the timeline for implementation of the various provisions of the Act.HealthCare.gov. (n.d.). Understanding the Affordable Care Act: About the law. Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/healthcare/rights/law/index.htmlRead the full Affordable Care Act law at this website. An overview of the law is also provided along with an outline of how the Affordable Care Act helps reduce health insurance costs.Required MediaLaureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2011). Healthcare policy and advocacy: Reforming health care delivery: Accountable care organizations. Baltimore: Author.Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 7 minutes.In this media presentation, Dr. Kathleen White explains the structure of accountable care organizations (ACO) and discusses the benefits and challenges of becoming an ACO.Optional ResourcesAPRN Joint Dialogue Group Report. (2008). Consensus model for APRN regulation: Licensure, accreditation, certification & education. Retrieved from http://www.aacn.nche.edu/education-resources/APRNReport.pdfFisher, E. S., & Shortell, S. M. (2010). Accountable care organizations: Accountable for what, to whom, and how. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 304(15), 1715–1716.Fisher, E. S., Staiger, D. O., Bynum, J. W., & Gottlieb, D. J. (2007). Creating accountable care organizations: The extended hospital medical staff. JHealth Affairs, 26, w44-w57. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.26.1.w44–57McClellan, M., McKethan, A. N., Lewis, J. L., Roski, J., & Fisher, E. S. (2010). A national strategy to put accountable care into practice. Health Affairs, 29(5), 982–990.Kaiser Health News. (2011). Accountable care organization proposed regulations: Resources. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.kaiserhealthnews.org/Stories/2011/March/31/ACO-Documents-In-The-News.aspx
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